作夢者班/做夢者班 II

本論壇自 2009 起分享南開諾布仁波切之教法,目前歸屬於象雄文化。Email: dreamworkforum@gmail.com

《The Crystal and the Way of Light》(水晶與光道)

《水晶與光道》、《大圓滿》、《夢瑜伽》及大圓滿相關書籍閱讀札記

《The Crystal and the Way of Light》(水晶與光道)

文章SW » 2012-03-09, 00:24

圖檔

2008/12/12 Fri., cloudy, indoor 22.1°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:密宗四派都有大圓滿

就今日所讀的《水晶與光道》英文版內容,釐清兩點:其一是藏密佛教文化之所以如此繁複;其二,大圓滿不限密宗寧瑪派傳承。當然講到寧瑪派就一定要提到蓮花生大士(Padmasambhava),因為正是他在西元八世紀將佛教引入西藏。

南開諾布仁波切解釋,蓮花生大士出生於烏諦雅那國(Urgyan)(註:因為南開諾布仁波切主要在義大利弘法,所以我猜想他使用的英文是拉丁文,所以本書所列專有名詞,與真正通用的或有差異),西藏當時的本土宗教為崇尚地方神靈的苯教(Bon);南開諾布仁波切說蓮花生大士直接從噶拉‧多傑(Garab Dorje 極喜金剛,人間第一位大圓滿祖師)處獲得大圓滿境相傳承(visionary transmission of Dzogchen),同樣從噶拉多傑的傳承弟子(指的是師利星哈)處獲得口耳傳承(oral transmission );隨後蓮花生大士行至印度,吸收與掌握了密續教法(tantric trachings),成為成就者(siddha)。後來蓮花生大士利用神通力降伏西藏地方神靈成為護法(Guardians),他不認為有必要否決西藏地方傳統價值,因此融合而成獨特的藏傳佛教特色。(pp. 36-40)

我之前所質疑佛教有提到護法神這件事的原委,就是來自藏傳佛教扎根於地方宗教——苯教——所形成的樣貌,是藏傳佛教有祭祀護法神的習慣,倒不見得其他南傳或北傳佛教都祭拜護法。第二個,不是只有寧瑪派有大圓滿教法:

One must be careful to avoid the mistake, however, of thinking that the Dzogchen teachings are a school or sect 教派, in themselves, or that they belong to any school or sect. What is meant by 'Dzogchen' is always the primordial 原初的 state. And although a lineage of transmission of this state from master to disciple does indeed exist, members of that lineage, all equally practitioners of Dzogchen, could be and still can be found in all the schools of Tibetan Buddhism, or among the practitioners of Bon, or belonging to no school or sect at all. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 40)

南開諾布仁波切這裡強調大圓滿是一種狀態,而非學派或教派。藏傳佛很早前便教吸收了大圓滿的教法延續至今,因此易被貼上(前弘期舊譯派)寧瑪派的標籤,但大圓滿並非僅屬於寧瑪派。寧瑪派大圓滿傑出代表人包括龍欽饒絳巴(Lonqen Rabjemba, 1303-63)、吉美林巴(Jimmed Linba, 1729-98);南開諾布仁波切這裡提到第三世噶瑪巴,其整合了大手印教法與大圓滿阿底瑜伽傳統,成立獨立的傳承體系噶舉派;再來是薩迦派,遵循來自 India Mahasiddha 傳統,也有修行大圓滿傑出的例子;最後是格魯派,亦包含許多大圓滿導師,第五世達賴喇嘛(1617-82)就是其一。(p. 41)

當翻譯官好辛苦啊,費時半天只寫了這麼一點。結論:

So it should, in general, be remembered that masters with principal allegiance to the one school, whilst fully maintaining that commitment, nevertheless freely received transmission form other traditions, and this in fact brought about a great cross fertilization in Tibetan spiritual life and culture. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, pp. 43-44)
SW
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文章: 4219
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文章SW » 2012-03-09, 00:27

2008/12/13 Sat., cloudy, indoor 21.8°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:西藏導師們四種生活形態;且卻

凌晨看完英文版《水晶與光道》第五章,主要在講南開諾布仁波切兩位叔舅的故事。我覺得資深佛友批評我寫札記的方式,卻忽略掉很重要一點,現今很多藏密上師都在中國以外地區出書,在台灣仁波切們的書滿坑滿谷,是很活絡的出版地,大陸地區弄了很多台灣繁體書的簡體電子版在網路流通,想必大陸人對台灣佛書趨之若鶩,我滿足了許多買不到台灣書的大陸讀友,稍微看看摘要也是不錯的。

回過頭來講南開諾布仁波切的兩個叔舅,這我直接中文轉述就可以了。南開諾布仁波切說西藏的導師們主要過著四種生活形態:(1)住在寺廟的僧侶;(2)與家庭一起住在鄉間過著凡俗的生活;(3)像游牧民族逐水草而居,帶著弟子隨同家畜住於洞穴的上師;(4)住於洞穴的瑜伽士。而南開諾布仁波切要講的兩個舅舅都是住於洞穴的後兩者。

第一個叔叔 Toden(多登),由於跟南開諾布仁波切的上師蔣秋多傑一樣不是受過很多教育,但卻是位大圓滿行者。本來他父母要培養他成為一名金匠,但 Toden 重病,被一位大圓滿導師治癒,同時也開始實修。Toden 畢生都住於高山上的洞穴,起因是他無法了解任何群體式的教導且深感困擾,他的上師讓一名資深弟子便帶他去山洞獨自閉關修行,事實上他開始練習的便是且卻。

The Practice of Chod
This is a practice in which one works to overcome attachment and ego-clinging by making a mentally visualized offering of one's own physical body. The practice was developed by a great Tibetan lady practitioner, Majig Labdron (1055-1149), who came from a Bonbo 苯教 shamanic traditions with teachings of the Prajnaparamita Sutra and Dzogchen traditions. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 47)


照文後描述就是瑪吉拉準的施身法,我們摘過嗎?我想起 10/09 高雄某師兄召集晚上去墳場,說要斷除自我,可能就是在實修施身法。《普賢上師言教》說:「為了斷除對身體的愛執,供施身體比供施其他物質更殊勝、功德更大。瑪姬拉准也說:『無貪施身體,未知成二資,珍愛蘊身體,佛母前懺悔。』」(p. 240)網路上一則瑪吉拉準施身法開示:

瑪吉拉準的施身法開示:
Expose your hidden faults. 揭露你隱藏的錯處,
Overcome hesitation. 克服猶豫不決,
Carry what you dare not. 扛起那些不敢做的事物。
Cut your fetters. 把你的腳鐐手銬切斷,
Give up attachments. 放棄執著愛取,
Keep to haunted places. 待在鬧鬼不安之處,
Knows that beings are as vast as the sky. 瞭解眾生如虛空般的廣大。
In haunted places, seek the buddha within yourself. 在鬧鬼的地方,尋找你內在的佛陀。


今天只能講到一個叔叔的故事,下一個伏藏師舅舅明天再續。

斷法的含義
斷法的含義︰斷法所要降伏的妖魔鬼怪並不在外界而在於內心。外境迷現為鬼神的形象,也都是由未根除我執傲慢魔產生的。瑪吉空行母說︰「有礙無礙魔,喜樂傲慢魔,其根為慢魔。」所謂的魔即是指我執傲慢魔。又說︰「眾魔為意識,凶魔乃我執,野魔即分別,斷彼稱斷者。」密勒日巴尊者也曾對岩羅剎女說︰「比你更厲之魔是我執,比你更多之魔是意識,比你更縱之魔是分別。」
此外,斷法分類有三種,瑪吉空行母說︰「漫遊險山外斷法,棄身施食內斷法,唯一根除義斷法,具此三斷乃瑜伽。」所以一切斷法行者徹底根除了所有無明迷現稱為唯一根除義斷法。因此未斷除我執之前,外境迷現之魔殺也殺不了,打也打不倒,壓也壓不住,趕也趕不走。譬如,火未熄之前煙無法滅盡。同樣未根除內心傲慢魔之前,其功用所產生的外境迷現之鬼神不可能消失。如岩羅剎女對密勒日巴尊者所說︰「若未證悟自心空,似我之魔不可數,你雖勸逐吾不去。」至尊密勒日巴也說︰「執魔為魔遭損害,知魔為心獲解脫,證魔為空即斷法。此魔羅剎男女相,未證之時乃為魔,製造障礙作損害,若證魔本亦天尊,一切悉地從汝生。」所說的斷法是指徹底根除內心執魔的分別念,而不是指殘殺、毆打、驅逐、鎮壓、消滅外魔,因此我們應當了知所斷之魔不在外界而在內心。(索達吉堪布《大圓滿前行引導文‧普賢上師言教》)
SW
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文章: 4219
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文章SW » 2012-03-09, 00:34

2008/12/14 Sun., cloudy, indoor 20.8°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:明點 Tigle

先補一下斷法的內容:

We have an instinct for self-protection, trying to defend at self-protection ultimately causes us more suffering, because it binds us into the narrow dualistic vision of self and other. By summoning 召喚 up what is most dreaded, and openly offering what we usually most want to protect, the Chod works to cut us out of the double bind of the ego and attachment to the body. In fact the name 'Chod' means 'to cut'; but it is the attachment, not the body itself that is the problem to be cut through. The human body is regarded as a precious vehicle for the attainment of realization. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 49)

南開諾布仁波切的另一個舅舅也是長期在洞穴閉關,除了行者外也以伏藏師(德童 derdon)聞名。當南開諾布仁波切相當年輕時也待在舅舅洞穴下方,他有一個神奇經驗:

While there, I had a dream one night, in which a Dakini 空行母 appeared to me and gave me a small scroll of paper on which there was written a sacred text. She explained that the text was very important, and that on waking I should give it to my uncle. By this time my practice had already developed to the extent that I could maintain awareness throughout my sleep and dreams, and in this dream I knew that I was dreaming. I remember closing one of my fists around the scroll, and then closing the other fist tightly around the first.
The rest of the night passed uneventfully, and when I awoke at dawn, I found that my fists were still tightly clenched one around the other. When I opened my hands, I found that there really was a small scroll in the palm of one hand. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 51)


後來南開諾布仁波切跟他舅舅說這件神奇的事,他舅舅看著小捲軸片刻,十分平靜地說:「Thank you. I was expecting this.」(p. 52)這位伏藏師叔叔還有一次費勁九牛二虎之力,在二、三十人協力及見證下,取出了一件白色球形伏藏,小心翼翼地放在木盒裡並上了封蠟,數月後封蠟還原封不動的情況下,白球卻消失了,他叔叔未顯驚訝,只說因為伏藏發現與揭露的時機未成熟,空行母取回去了。

南開諾布仁波切同樣舉了密勒日巴的例子,說沒有比密勒日巴接受教法前所付出的辛勞困難更甚的了,馬爾巴讓他建了五座塔然後又讓他拆了,之前馬爾巴沒有給予密勒日巴任何教導。

To understand why these people were prepared to endure all this hardship, we need to remember how fragile our lives are, and that death can come for any of us at any time. Knowing how we continue to suffer in life after life without understanding why we are suffering or how we can bring this suffering to an end, the enormous value of a master and his or her teaching becomes urgently clear.
It is not unusual for people to make great efforts and sacrifices to receive the teachings. But there is a tendency to want things made easy that is particularly common today. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 54)


這段呼應這期新札記寫到的「史上最強颱風去聽聞佛法」,師父也是這麼說。接下來南開諾布仁波切以寧瑪派常講的基道果來說明大圓滿教法的架構。我覺得很有興趣的是他提到 Tigle 明點這個詞,我為什麼知道 Tigle 說的是明點,因為最近剛好翻到《一味》後面的〈名詞中英對照〉,「具明點印 Tigle Gyachen」。南開諾布仁波切說大圓滿 Dzogchen 對西藏人而言用的是另一個名字:Tigle Qenbo Great Tigle。南開諾布仁波切怎麼說明點:

A tigle is a spherical drop-like form, with no dividing lines or angles, like the representation of the circular mirror, made of five precious metals that is a particular symbol of the Dzogchen teachings and of the unity of the primordial state. So, although the teachings are divided into groups for the purposed of clear explanation, their fundamental unity, like the perfect sphere of the tigle, must not be forgotten. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 55)

秋竹仁波切也說到:「九乘、經律論、八萬四千法,全部精華都濃縮起來,只是一個上師相應法。除了這以外,為了一種次第的原則,一個叫力斷(且卻)、一個叫頓超(妥噶), 力斷的部分也有止修、觀修,我認為這些都只是為眾生的要求而排個課程而已。」(2008/10/29 台北中心開示)我還沒有翻到肯恩寫「具明點印」的內容,不過頂果欽哲法王的《如意寶:上師相應法》說到:

上師相應法就是與上師的本性合而為一。這是所有修行的基礎,其中有許多不同的修行方式。上師相應法分為外、內、秘密,以及最秘密的修行方法。法本上所敘述的外在修行方式,簡而言之,就是觀想上師在我們頭頂之上,然後用最大的虔誠,全心的向他祈請。
內在修行方法,就是經過練習而領悟到自己的身語意與上師的智慧身語意無二無別。在龍欽寧體中,這種內在修行的方法叫做「持明總集」,是蓮花生大士所傳下來的修行儀軌。
上師相應法的秘密修行方法,就是以上師報身也就是殊勝受用身來觀想。在龍欽寧體中,就是觀想蓮花生大士為觀世音菩薩的形象而修行,叫做「苦之自我解脫」。
最秘密的修行方法是直指我們覺性最自然的境界,方法則是觀想龍欽巴尊者,在他的心中是原始佛。這最秘密的儀軌叫做「具明點印」。
SW
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文章: 4219
註冊時間: 2012-03-05, 16:23
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文章SW » 2012-03-09, 00:37

2008/12/20 Sat., sunny, indoor 21.4°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:知一解全

講到肯恩油炸的慈悲,他說「一般人都以為慈悲和批判是二元對立的」(《一味》p. 157)——不要什麼都扯二元好吧,對立就對立,說相對也可以。「真正的慈悲是包含智慧的」,因此肯恩認為,只因為他需要、你也想行善,而送一箱威士忌給嚴重酗酒噁是一種愚蠢的慈悲(p. 158)。

禪把這兩者區分為「祖母禪」(老婆禪)與「正宗禪」(祖師禪)。為了從輪迴之夢醒來,自我必須被好好地修理一番;然而「祖母禪」會如你所願,「正宗禪」則會對你大聲吼叫,辱罵你,令你十分不悅。如果你沒有準備好接受這種火煉,那麼你就去新時代的圈子裡找一位輕鬆而又和藹,永遠面帶微笑,總是輕聲細語的老師,然後學著運用充滿靈性的辭藻,替自己的自我加上新的標籤。我的朋友,你千萬別靠近那些真正慈悲的人,因為他們會讓你嚐到油炸屁股的滋味。大部分人所說的「慈悲」其實是:請對我的自我好一點。然而你的自我就是你最大的敵人,善待你的自我其實是不慈悲的。(《一味》pp. 158-159)

肯恩隨後解釋他所定義的相對菩提心與勝義菩提心,他認為「無揀擇的覺察指的就是所謂的『畢竟空』或『絕對的菩提心』;批判指的則是相對的菩提心——這裡指的是真正的慈悲心。真正的慈悲心是從智慧中產生批判」(p. 160)。我覺得以上講法都把相對跟絕對拉得太遠了,好像從相對的世界跳到絕對的境界就換了一顆腦袋似的,什麼相對菩提是批判、絕對菩提不揀擇,事實上沒有先修世間法再修出世間法的,也沒辦法先修世俗諦再修勝義諦,肯恩自己在譚崔那篇結語中講「不離空性的至樂就是慈悲」(p. 171),我覺得南開諾布仁波切講得比較格局大點:

The Base is the term used to denote the fundamental ground of existence, both at the universal level, and at the level of the individual, the two being essentially the same; to realize the one is to realize the other. If you realize yourself you realize the nature of the universe. We have previously referred to the primordial state, experienced in non-dual contemplation, and it is in this state that individual regains the experience of identity with the Base. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 57)
SW
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文章: 4219
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文章SW » 2012-03-09, 00:39

2008/12/22 Mon., raining, indoor 17.4°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:不用先四加行?

不會禪定什麼都沒搞頭。無論是認知心性還是認知光明(心性的明分),都要花行者一輩子的努力,這好像跟唐望巫士說巫士要花一輩子的時間去練習自主性移動聚合點一樣。我是這樣說的:「大圓滿從心性直指開始,沒有直指也就沒有大圓滿。我不知道大圓滿上師到底教不教這個,可能光上師相應就夠了。」

繼續上篇所摘,一般學佛者引到在大圓滿傳承中四加行還是比照四教派辦理,顯然象雄大圓滿有不同看法,提到四加行,南開諾布仁波切說:

(Four Foundation practice/Nondro)Their purpose is to develop the capacity of the individual where it is lacking, and it is absolutely correct and traditional that they are a required prerequisite for certain levels of tantric 密續 practice.

But Dzogchen approaches the situation in another way; its principle is different from that of the tantras. Garab Dorje (大圓滿第一位人間祖師噶拉多傑或稱極喜金剛)didn't say: 'First teach the Nondro.' He said that the first thing to be done was for the master to give a Direct Introduction 直指; and that the disciple should try to enter into the primordial 本初 state, discovering how it is for him or herself, so as to no longer be in any doubt about it; and that then the disciple should try to continue in that state. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 83)


正如我們讀中文版的南開諾布仁波切文章所言,他認為弟子於此發生障礙而又無法克服時,再回過頭去做加行去彌補他所欠缺的能力(capacity)。南開諾布仁波切說:「One can see that the priciple of Dzogchen relies on the awareness of the practitioner in deciding what must be done, rather than on a rule compulsority applied to one and all. This is how it must be in Dzogchen.」(p. 83)他稱四加行為 compulsory,就像我們的國民義務教育一樣,但直指為何非要等完成四加行義務教育呢?
 
索甲仁波切說明大圓滿的見:

我現在要嘗試說明「見」到底像什麼,以及本覺直接顯現時的感覺,縱使一切的語言文字和概念名詞都無法真正描述它。

敦珠仁波切說:「當時就像脫掉你的頭蓋一般。多麼無邊無際和輕鬆自在啊!這是至高無上的見:見到從前所未見。」當你「見到從前所未見」時,一切都開放、舒展,變得清爽、清晰、活潑、新奇、鮮明。這就好像你心中的屋頂飛掉了,或一群鳥突然從黑暗的巢中飛走。一切限制都溶化和消失,就 好像西藏人所說的,封蓋被打開了。

想像你住在世界第一高峰頂上的屋子裏,突然間,擋住你視線的整棟房子倒塌了,你可以看到裏裏外外的一切。但都沒有什麼「東西」可以看到;當時所發射點,不能夠用任何平常的經驗來比喻;它是全然、完整、前所未有、完美無缺的看見。

敦珠仁波切說:「你最可怕的敵人,也就是自從無始以來到目前為止,讓你生生世世輪迴不已的敵人,就是執著和被執著的物件。」當上師介紹心性,你也認證心性時,「這兩者都被燒掉了,就 好像羽毛在火焰中化為灰燼,了無痕跡。」執著和被執著,,被執著的物件和執著的人,都從它們的基礎中完全解脫出來。無明和痛苦的根整個被切斷。一切事物像鏡中的影子,透明、閃耀、虛幻、如夢般的呈現。

當你在「見」的啟發下,自然達到這個禪定境界時,你就可以長時間維持在那兒,不會分心,也不必太費力。然後,沒有所謂「禪定」來保護或維繫,因為你已在本覺的自然之流中。當時,你就可以體悟到它過去和現在都如是。當本覺照射出來時,完全不會有任何懷疑,一種深刻完整的智慧就自然而直接地生起。

一切我所說明的影像和嘗試使用的譬喻,你將發現會溶化在廣大的真理經驗中。恭敬心在這個狀態中,慈悲心在這個狀態中,一切智慧、喜悅、清明和無思無慮全都融合和連結在一味中。這個時刻是覺醒的時刻。深刻的幽默感從心中湧起,你會啞然失笑,你過去有關心性的概念和想法錯得多麼離譜啊!

從這個經驗中將產生越來越不可動搖的肯定和信心,知道「這就是它」:再也沒有什麼好尋找的,再也沒有什麼可以企求的。這種對於「見」的確認,必須透過反覆瞥見心性來加深,並透過繼續禪修來穩定。(《西藏生死書》)
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文章SW » 2012-03-09, 00:47

2008/12/25 Thur., cloudy, indoor 19.6°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:三乘次第(1)

南開諾布仁波切並非否定四加行的功用,他說:

The Nondro 四加行 involves practices of Refuge 皈依 and Bodhicitta 發心, the offering of the Mandala 供曼達, reciting the mantra 咒 of Vajrasattva 金剛薩埵, and Guru Yoga 上師瑜伽, all of which must be carried out 100,000 times as a preliminary to receiving higher teachings. Every level of teaching has its value and its principle, and the repetition of these practices as preliminaries truly has its function in relation to the capacity of individuals approaching the tantric teachings. In Dzogchen the same practices are carried out; but not as a preliminary to Direct Introduction. They are all undertaken as part of the general daily pattern of practice, and without a requirement to complete a certain specific number of repetitions of them. (The Cycle of Day and Night: Where One Proceeds Along the Path of the Primordial Yoga : An Essential Tibetan Text on the Practice of Dzogchen, p. 83)

所以每天的功課還是要做,靜待上師何時要給予直指教授。我好像好幾本書一起看似的,其實它們都是彼此相關,但我也不是故意湊在一起的。四加行的作用不像我們表面理解的那樣,既不是迷信也不是苦行。竹慶本樂仁波切說到「修道之旅的前行準備」:

和其他的佛法修道之旅一樣,「大手印」和「大圓滿」法教也有前行、正行和結行,與所謂的根(基)、道、果相互對應。但「果」與「根」二者是一條完整修持道中的不同層面;不過我們必須循序漸進地次第修持,因為我們過去不但累積了大量的業力廢物,還把這些廢物帶到修持之道上。從「正覺(證悟)」(enlightenment)的觀點來看,這些次第的修持其實是不必要的,次第修持的必要性是從「煩惱」的觀點來看的,因此而言,我們可以說煩惱的強弱決定了各自修持道的複雜性,也決定了禪修次第、按部就班地處理我執和情緒的必要性。(《狂野的覺醒:大手印與大圓滿之旅》p. 25)

信天主教的 J 不知道現今教宗是誰,《達賴喇嘛十問》當中,達賴喇嘛肯定各種宗教存在的意義及其安定人心社會的功用,但如果說說他最渴望的事,他說他想待在僻靜之處,像一隻受傷的野獸,安靜的療傷(大概是這意思);影片開頭字幕他說他十五、六歲的時候,就擔負了難以想像的負擔。

一般而言,大手印和大圓滿的修持之道都是以漸進次第的方式來教授的,這些次第的修持能幫助我們做好十足的準備。我們全面檢視整趟旅程,找出所有可能導致嚴重意外的潛在問題,然後尋找求可行的方法保護自己、解決可能會面臨的問題;我們要學習如何防範問題的產生、如何處理那些無可避免的情況。( 《狂野的覺醒:大手印與大圓滿之旅》p. 27)

達賴喇嘛稱此為自律,譬如跟人吵架,想到一氣之下把他殺了,運氣好的話可以逍遙法外,運氣不好就被送進監獄,終其一生背負殺人犯的污名,因此透過分析而得知因所造成的果,就是自律。如同上師上次開示提到,修行者完成了四加行好像也起了驕傲心,這不知道算不算是唐望之道上的第二個敵人「明晰」,完成四加行,清淨業障也對佛法起了虔信心,以為自己清淨明晰好像很厲害的樣子。

If the Nondro 四加行 is undertaken as a preparation for tantric 密續 practice, then, for it to function, the intention of the practitioner should, in any case, never become merely that of trying to acquire a 'passport' to higher teachings. Such an attitude will surely only bring pride and a false sense of superiority, instead of a deepening of commitment, humility, purification, and devotion to and union of one's mind with that of one's root master 根本上師. The Nondro 四加行 exists to enable one to accumulate merit, in order to be able to approach the way of wisdom. If one's intention is not perfect as one carries it out, it will not function. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, pp. 83-84)

上面說的次第並非說的是生起與圓滿次第,這是專指密續本尊修法的部分。竹慶本樂仁波切說的是三乘的次第修持,小乘觀察自己(自境),而後大乘觀察他人(他境),最後金剛乘觀察整個外在世界。

小乘時,我們要學習如何更深入地面對個人的經驗;我們必須先深切地體會自己的情緒、學習面對自己的痛苦,之後才會有能力實踐大乘的利他教義。大乘修持道,大乘要點在於「運用甚深的洞悉力與他人互動」。金剛乘修行道上,意味著我們要不間斷地以非二元的心跟外在世界打交道,也就是說,我們不在「好」與「壞」「覺醒」與「昏睡」之間作二元化的判別。(《狂野的覺醒:大手印與大圓滿之旅》pp. 29-30)

對應於南開諾布仁波切的分法就是(大小乘) sultra 經、(金剛乘)tantra 續,與 Zhogchen 大圓滿。

Tantric practices may be used as secondary practices by the practitioner of Dzogchen, alongside the principle practice of contemplation. All tantric practice works with visualization, but in th higher, or Anuttaratantras, the practitioner works to reintegrate his or her dualistic existence into its inherent primordial unity using inner yogic practices as well as visualization. The process of developing the visualization is called 'Gyedrim', and the work with inner yoga is called 'Zogrim', which mean 'Development' 生起 and 'Completion' 圓滿 stages 次第 respectively. By means of these two stages the impure karmic 業 vision of the individual is transformed into the pure dimension, or 'mandala' 壇城, of the divinity into whose practice the master has initiated 灌頂 the disciple. Mantra are the natural sounds of the dimension of the divinity, and are recited as the vibrational key to that dimension. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 84)
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文章SW » 2012-03-09, 00:51

2008/12/27 Sat., sunny, indoor 21.4°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:內壇城——男女日月能量(1)

南開諾布仁波切來講身口意,特別是口,應該說的是語南開諾布仁波切英文以能量來解釋。他說:「The level of energy, or voice, is not so easy to see, and not so widely understood.」(p. 11)

Dzogchen teachings present practices that work with each of these three levels of the individual, practices that can be integrated with the individual's daily life and which can thus change our whole life experience form one of tension and confusion to one of wisdom and true freedom. The teachings are not merely theoretical, they are practical; and though the Dzogchen teachings are extremely ancient, because the nature of the body, voice and mind has not changed, these teachings remain as relevant to the human situation of today as they were to that of yesterday. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p.12)

因此持誦咒語實在是跟語也就是能量相關,還有呼吸方式也跟語的能量相關,南開諾布仁波切提到「To ensure precise control of the breathing, and thus of the energy」(p. 87)。今天也不是講語,而是 The Inner Mandala。

Many tantric divinities are represented as being in union with consorts 性伴侶, and these forms are known as father-mother 佛父母 forms. Their union represents the indissoluble unity of relative and absolute, manifestation 顯現 and voidness 空性, method 方便 and wisdom. They also symbolize the union of what are called the 'solar' and 'lunar' energies, the two poles of subtle energy that flow in the subtle energy system of the human body, which is called the 'Inner Mandala'. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 87)

南開諾布仁波切以燈泡的電路來解釋,電路正負極一銜接燈泡就會亮,故此,微細能量系統的 solar energy 及 lunar energy 成為整體狀態時,南開諾布仁波切稱「which was their inherent, latent condition from the very beginning, the human being can become illuminated」(p. 87)。肯恩也提過這種「亞當碰到夏娃、日月能量圓滿」的感覺:

有一件事很確定:無窮的愛人與個人之愛並非互相抵觸的,後者只是這浩瀚海洋的一陣波浪。清晨當我醒來時,躺在瑪莎的身邊進行冥想,在默觀的過程只有一件事別於往常:全身上下都有一種至樂感,弔詭的是這份感覺既微弱又強烈,在覺察之下緩緩推進。這股性能量重新接上它的源頭,也就是身心的精微次元。每當我在冥想時,時常輕輕觸撫她的身體,這個動作的確造成能量的完整循環,她也有這種感覺。

這是男女都可以為對方做的事,這是譚崔(Tantra)的中心思想:以深入肺腑的方式來說,男女的交合乃是「性愛」與「神對世人之愛」的結合,真空與妙有的結合,智慧與慈悲的結合。這不是一種理論,而是身體的氣或能量的真實交合,因此在最高層次的譚崔教誨裡,只是觀想與自己的神聖伴侶進行性愛的交合是不夠的,想要達到終極的解說,你必須和一位真實的伴侶進行真正的性交,才能完成能量的循環,來幫助你認出那早已解脫的心。(《一味》p. 313)
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文章SW » 2012-03-09, 00:54

2008/12/28 Sun., cloudy, indoor 22.3°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:男女日月能量(2)

今天繼續昨天的話題,南開諾布仁波切說:

In the same way that, in the Chinese Taoist system of philosophy, Yin and Yang are seen as two principles of energy that are fundamentally inseparable and mutually interdependent constituents of a totally integrated unity, so, too, the solar and lunar energies are seen as fundamentally not-two from the very beginning. Their fundamental unity is symbolized by the Sanskrit 梵語 syllable 發音 'Evam', which is also a symbol of the father-mother principle. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 87)

昨天我們還沒訓詁一下胡因夢大小姐的翻譯,「以深入肺腑的方式來說」:「in a very concrete, visceral way, the union of male and female is the union of Eros and Agape, Ascending and Descending, Emptiness and Form, Wisdom and Compassion. 」哪有講到交合?「Not theoretically but concretely, in the actual distribution of prana 氣 or energy currents in the body itself. 」所謂最高階的譚崔教誨,漏掉括弧 anuttaratantrayoga 阿努瑜伽,也不是為達到終極的解脫需要一位真實的性伴侶,而是證悟:「the mere visualization of sexual congress with the divine consort is not enough for final enlightenment. Rather, for ultimate enlightenment, one must take an actual partner—real sex—in order to complete the circuits conducive to recognizing the already-enlightened mind.」(One Taste: Daily Reflections on Integral Spirituality, p. 183)

我不打算研究 Anuttaratantrayoga 無上密續瑜伽,姑且抄一段再回來講日月能量。

Buddhism if one confines one's consideration to the concept of Samadhi 三摩地 as cessation, it is nevertheless very far from what at in the Tantric Buddhism of the Vajrayana 金剛乘. The fundamental concept behind the yoga of the Annuttaratantra is the recognition of the essential unity of the relative and absolute, a concept already important in the Mahayana 大乘. The tantras begin with the awareness of the voidness of all phenomena (the absolute), and aim at reintegrating it with the relative, working with the method of transformation. The relative is thus not renounced or rejected as impure, but is used as the means of transformation itself, until dualism is overcome, and all phenomena, both relative and absolute, can be said to be 'of one taste' - pure from the very beginning. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 86)

其實「空」說成 Emptiness,我看過的翻譯也有講 Voidness,「空」並非空無一物的概念。回到肯恩所說的高階譚崔教誨,南開諾布仁波切則說「The advanced yogic practice of 'Karmamudra' ('Action Seal'), which uses sexual union to consummate the union of the solar and lunar energies, is also a source of the father-mother images as symbol of reality seen as the blissful play of voidness and energy.」這個 blissful 正是肯恩所宣稱「全身上下都有一種至樂感」(there is a wholebody bliss),怪不得小一號的 Karmamudra 就可以至樂,更大的 Mahamudra (大手印,maha 是大的意思)要被奧修說成「宇宙的性高潮」了。

But Karmamudra in an actual practice, and not just a fancy way of enjoying sex disguised as spiritual practice. Its importance in the advanced stages of the tantric practice can be understood from the tantric saying: 'Without Karmamudra, there is no Mahamudra.' Karmamudra is not a principle practice in Dzogchen itself. In Dzogchen one integrates one's state with whatever experience one encounters, remaining in contemplation, and allowing whatever arises to self-liberate of itself. But the powerful sensation of sexual union, if one does engage in it, is valuable in that its intensity enables one to distinguish clearly the sensation aspect of one's experience from the state of presence 臨在、當下, or rigpa 本覺, that accompanies it. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 88)

南開諾布仁波切說「和一位真實的伴侶進行真正的性交」並非大圓滿主要的練習。我現在知道臨在(presence,當下)狀態也可以稱本覺(rigpa)喔?(2013 按:本覺是 instant presence,presence 還不是本覺。)
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文章SW » 2012-03-09, 00:57

2008/12/29 Mon., raining, indoor 21.5°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:三乘次第(2)

我們今天回來敲中文,繼續摘點《狂野的覺醒》。許多上師開示中,宗薩仁波切最為推崇小乘,他認為小乘能修好也不容易了,因為大乘要發菩提心,也就是具有慈悲心的菩薩,他謙虛地認為自己有時也缺乏慈悲心,會躲起來讓弟子找不到。竹慶永樂仁波切說明大、小乘及金剛乘:

小乘(Hinayana)
我們可以說,出離心的生起幫我們啟動了車子的引擎,讓我們得以駕車上路,找到脫離苦受的正確出口。生起真正的厭離感之後,我們便能斷捨那根深蒂固且微細的內在習氣,使它不再遮蔽、干擾、傷害我們的內在安樂。

大乘(Mahayana)
我們只需將自己的動機和參考點稍稍做一些轉移,從自我中心的角度轉移到關懷眾生的角度。我們的整條修持道都是為了利他,這些利他的發心被稱為「菩提心」(bodhichitta),也稱為證悟之心。

金剛乘(Vajrayana)
佛果或證悟就存在生命的所有狀態中,其中的意義是,證悟之心相續不斷,好比穿過念珠的線一般。在金剛乘中,我們並不將證悟視為一種「終極目標」,因為「證悟」就在「當下」,它呈現在心的每一個面向中。(《狂野的覺醒:大手印與大圓滿之旅》pp. 30-33)


西方人包括肯恩‧威爾伯才最喜歡講什麼 ultimate,像肯恩說的「ultimate enlightenment」。至於大圓滿所講的九乘次第,三個一組,大小乘在第一組也叫「因乘」,這我們摘很多了;第二組外密續,事部、行部、瑜伽部,「這三種外密的組合提供了各種方便善巧法門,使我們能更直接與心的本性相應」(p. 35);第三組內密續/果乘,大瑜伽部密續(簡稱 Maha yoga)、阿努瑜伽密續(就是昨天很長的英文,簡稱 Anu yoga)、阿底瑜伽部密續(簡稱 Ati yoga),「此乘的最後階段是阿底瑜伽部,藏文稱卓千大圓滿,它即是修道之旅的終點站,我們所有輪迴廢物亦已全部清除」(p. 35)。

南開諾布仁波切說明:「Both the Path of Renunciation, Hinayana and Mahayana can be said to work at the level of Body. Tantra works at the level of Energy, or 'Voice'.」(The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 30) 大小乘是 Path of Renunciation,內密續則是 Path of Transformation。他說 tantra 這字的真正意義是 continuation——相續,「although all phenomena are void, nevertheless phenomena continue to manifest.」南開諾布仁波切說:「All tantric methods work with this continuation, taking the voidness of all phenomena, which the sutra (經,指大小乘)work towards, as their basic assumption.」(p. 30)

There are Outer and Inner tantras also called Lower and Higher tantras. Both these levels of tantra use visualization as a principle means, but the Outer tantras begin working at the level of the external conduct of the practitioner to bring about a purification of thought and action to prepare the practitioner to receive wisdom. The Outer tantras thus begin with what is called the Path of Purification, the first stage of the Vajrayana, or 'Indestructible Vehicle'.
The second stage of the Vajrayana is the path of Transformation which begins with the third and last level of the Outer tantras and includes all the three levels of the Inner tantras. These Inner tantras work once again on the basic assumption of the voidness of all phenomena, but they principally use inner yoga, working on the subtle energy system of the body to bring about a transformation of the practitioner’s whole dimension into the dimension of the realized being 證悟眾生 visualized in the practice. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 31)
SW
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文章SW » 2012-03-09, 01:00

2009/01/02 Fri., cloudy, indoor 17.0°C 《水晶與光道》英文版:Prana 氣入中脈

繼續來摘 father-mother form——Inner Madala。

The 'Vajra Body' is the name given to the human body with its Inner Mandala, or subtle energy system, when it is used as a basis for practice to achieve realization. The Inner Mandala has three constituents: First, the body's subtle vital energy in flow linked to the breath, which is called Prana 氣 in Sanskrit 夏克提, and Lun in Tibetan; secondly the subtle currents of prana, some of which flow in actual physical channels, and some of which do not; and thirdly the subtle energy in its essential form, which is Called Tigle 明體 in Tibetan, and Kundalini 亢達里尼 or Bindu in Sanskrit. Tigle and lun are not two separate things, the one is the essence of the other. It is the work done with the Inner Mandala that makes the tantric practices of the Path of Transformation a more rapid path to realization than the methods of the sutras. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, pp. 88-89)

這邊南開諾布仁波切將明點跟呼吸(prana 是生命之氣,註一)做了連結,還又提到拙火——也就是能量,如此使得我習慣以為明點是聚合點的假設有點混淆。南開諾布仁波切在(舊版)《夢瑜珈》中註解明體:

明體(Tigle):關於明體有的不同的定義。以某方面而言它代表與梵文的明點(bindu、drop)相似,是一種無稜無角、類似圓圈或完美球體的東西。明體同時也被定義為內部有球體存在的物體。(按:那就很像明晰球體了,內部有聚合點。)大明體(Tigle Chenpo),意為「包含了萬物的東西」,這也是大圓滿的令一個名稱。明體也有「本質」的意思,如同《龍欽心髓》。(簡體《夢瑜珈》pp. 164-165)

「以幻輪瑜珈(Yantra Yoga)而言,明體被定義為身體最基本的微妙能量,如同 Kundalini 一般。明體同時也指出現在明體修持法的最初景象中,是一種微小的彩虹般光球體。」(p. 165)這樣看起來又像聚合點。可能藏密修行人跟托爾特克傳承巫士所看見與勝觀——兩個seeing——各的不同。再來講到氣入中脈。因為身語意的語,代表語、呼吸以及心靈能量,呼吸是生命能量的傳遞工具,其能量除了導入氣管之外,還有許多微細脈。南開諾布仁波切說:

There are very many of these, but the principle ones are found along the central channel, which is like the main trunk of the tree in the analog above. The essence of prana, kundalini or tigle concentrates in these principle chakras, in a subtle channel within the spinal column, called the Gyunba.(The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 90)

喇嘛尊者(Swami Rama)的《超越生死的奧祕》,提到「向上升起的氣是帕拉那(Prana)」,也就是上行氣。

When the prana is brought into the central channel 中脈, its essential nature—tigle or kundalini—is activated and enters the channels. Dualistic mind is then overcome, and realization achieved. The vital energy will not normally enter the central channel except at the time of death or during sleep. Only practice will otherwise cause it to do so. Although various tantras specific different chakras 脈輪 at which the prana should be induced to enter the central channel, they all specify that it should be brought to enter there. (The Crystal and the Way of Light, p. 91)

照書上講是要吸氣後於臍下四指處的生法宮呼氣進入中脈,實際做法要參考耶喜喇嘛教的寶瓶氣修法(見《拙火之樂》)。
SW
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文章: 4219
註冊時間: 2012-03-05, 16:23
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